Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati: A Brief Biography


Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati was a Hindu reformer and the founder of the Arya Samaj. He was born in 1824 in the small village of Tankara, in the state of Gujarat, India. He is considered one of the most influential figures in the Hindu renaissance during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Early Life:

Maharishi Dayanand was born as Mul Shankar to a Brahmin family. His birth name was changed later to Dayanand. He showed an early interest in spirituality and the Vedas, which prompted his parents to send him to study under various Hindu gurus. He was a deeply religious person and a seeker of truth and was known for his devotion and asceticism.

Founding of the Arya Samaj:

Maharishi Dayanand’s travels took him to many parts of India, where he saw the rampant social, religious, and economic problems facing the country. He felt a strong sense of urgency to bring about change and improve the lives of his fellow Indians. To this end, he founded the Arya Samaj in 1875 in Bombay (now Mumbai), with the goal of promoting the revival and reforms of Hinduism.

Beliefs and Teachings:

Maharishi Dayanand’s teachings were based on the principles of the Vedas, which he believed were the oldest and purest scriptures of Hinduism. He believed that the Vedas were the source of all knowledge and the source of all religious and philosophical systems in the world. He also believed in the unity of all religions and that all religions were paths to the same truth.

Reforms and Campaigns:

Maharishi Dayanand’s reforms were aimed at correcting the social and religious problems that he saw in India. He advocated for the education of women, the abolition of the caste system, and the elimination of religious practices that he saw as superstitious or harmful to the people. He also led campaigns against idol worship, animal sacrifice, and the use of intoxicants, and he worked to promote Hindu unity.


Maharishi Dayanand’s teachings and reforms were not without controversy. Some saw him as a revolutionary, while others saw him as a threat to traditional Hinduism. His views on caste and idol worship, in particular, caused him to be criticized and sometimes attacked by members of the priestly class and others who opposed his reforms.

Death and Legacy:

Maharishi Dayanand died in 1883 in Ajmer, India, where he was visiting at the time. Despite his relatively short life, he left a lasting impact on Hinduism and India. The Arya Samaj that he founded continues to be an influential organization, promoting education, social reform, and the revival of Hinduism.


Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati was a visionary and a reformer who devoted his life to improving the lives of his fellow Indians. He was a man of great courage, integrity, and spirituality, who spoke out against the injustices and inequalities that he saw in India. His teachings and reforms continue to inspire and influence people today, and his legacy lives on through the work of the Arya Samaj and others who follow his teachings.

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